Today in this article i will tell you about “The Solid State“.
Introduction – It is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials.
The Solid State
Here we have two types of solid states:
- Crystalline Solid
- Amorphous Solid
- Crystalline Solid – It has regular arrangement of the molecules. It has also sharp melting point(small gap in temp.).It is anisotropic in nature because in different direction its properties changes. e.g- Refractive Index
- Amorphous Solid – It has irregular arrangement of the molecules. Is has broad melting point(Large gap in temp.). It is isotropic in nature because its properties does not change with direction. e.g – refractive index does not change.
Classification of solids
Solid state is classified on the bases of three facts: Particle and their nature, Force of attraction, Arrangement of molecules. There are four types of solids in which they are classified as:
- Ionic solids – In this interaction takes place between ions. e.g- NaCl
- Atomic Solids – In this electron sharing takes place. e.g- diamond and graphite.
- Molecular Solids – Since molecule does not have any charge but there are two types of interaction between them. a)Dipole interaction b)Hydrogen bonding. e.g- ice
- Metallic Solids – It consist of sea of electrons in which metal is placed. The electron’s are movable and it is also called electron sea model.
Comparison between structure of diamond and graphite
Since both diamond and graphite consist of carbon atom but they are different on the bases of arrangement of molecules.
1. It has 3D structure.
2. It has sp3 hybridisation.
3. It is hard.
4. It is bad conductor of electricity.
Comment below if you want to ask any questions about this topic.
1. It has planner structure.
2. It has sp2 hybridisation.
3. It is soft.
4. Because of delocalization of double bond it is good conductor of electricity.
If you have any problem about this topic you can comment in the comment box given below.
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